More

Try To See If You Recognize Your State On This Map. I Bet Ya Don't.

I'm from Missouri. In school we learned a LOT about Lewis and Clark, Sacajawea, and all sorts of rich Missouri history stuff. (I even know that the word "Missouri" means "of the big canoe.") So when I saw this map, I thought, "Oh yeah, I'm gonna know this stuff." Nope. It's more than a bummer how overlooked Native American history is, and I hope this map adds a tiny blip of awareness to a too-long-ignored past.

Try To See If You Recognize Your State On This Map. I Bet Ya Don't.

What's *your* state's original name?

Alabama (Chickasha) – The Chickasha also had a strong presence in modern-day Mississippi. Most were removed and relocated to south-central Oklahoma in the decade following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Descendants reside there today.


Arizona (Ndeh) – Widely known as Chiricahua Apache, they currently reside on various reservations throughout Arizona, notably the San Carlos Reservation.

Arkansas (Ugakhpa)Removed to Oklahoma in 1834. Today, they roll 3,240 deep. The name “Arkansas” comes from “Arkansea,” the name they were called by the Algonquian-speaking Illini people.

California (Chumash) – Before Spanish contact in 1789, they were 22,000 strong and lived in the territory stretching from modern-day Malibu to Paso Robles. By the mid-1830s, their “officially registered” numbers were down to under 3,000. Today, they live mostly on the Santa Ynez Reservation in Santa Barbara, where there are 249 residents.

Colorado (Hinonoeino) – In 1864, Col. John Chivington and his Colorado militiamen murdered an estimated 70-163 Hinonoeino (Arapaho) in a sneak attack that become known as the Sand Creek massacre. In 1999, two “Northern Arapaho” descendants named Ben and Gail Ridgely organized a group of runners to run from Limon, Colorado, to Ethete, Wyoming, in commemoration of their ancestors who were forced to escape Chivington’s forces on foot. Most Hinonoeino still live in Colorado.

Connecticut (Quinnipiac)Widely dispersed as a result of ethnic cleansing, religious conversion and encroachment happened to them at the hands of Puritans. Today, refugee descendants can be found as far west as Texas and as far north as Quebec.

Delaware (Nanticoke) – The first Nanticoke reservation was established in 1684. In 1881, they reorganized as the Nanticoke Indian Association and in 1922 were chartered as a non-profit organization. Today, they regularly host public cultural events, like powwows.

Florida (Thimogna)Reduced by conquest from one of the largest tribes in the southeast, with 35 separate chiefdoms, to utter extinction by the turn of the 19th century.

Georgia (Muscogee)Removed to Oklahoma and a small strip in Alabama in 1832. Now they are dispersed largely throughout the southeastern U.S.

Idaho (Nimi) – Reside largely on the 770,000-acre Nez Perce Reservation, the largest in Idaho. Their original territory was estimated at 17 million acres.

Illinois (Kaskaskaham) – The pre-eminent cause of death among the Kaskaskia was disease brought by Europeans, to which they had no immunity. Today, their numbers are a fraction of what they once were, and they mostly reside in Oklahoma.

Indiana (Mengakonkia) – Now recognized as part of the Miami Nation, they reside throughout Indiana, Oklahoma, and parts of Michigan and Ohio.

Iowa (Bah-kho-je)517 of the currently registered 697 members now live in Oklahoma.

Kansas (Hutanga) – Also known as the Kansa or Kaw. The last fluent speaker of the Kansa language reportedly died in 1983, and the last full-blooded member died in 2000.

Kentucky (Honniasont) – Described as a “little-known indigenous people” who inhabited the Ohio Valley above Louisville.

Louisiana (Yuk'hiti ishak)Most are believed to have been decimated by disease in the 1850s. But descendants live in Texas and Louisiana, and a group of 450 gathered for the first time in over 100 years in 2006.

Maine (Lnu'k) – A strong presence in modern-day Canada, they signed a historic agreement in 2010 stating that the federal government had to consult them before pursuing any activities or projects that impact them.

Maryland (Accomack) – Later known as the Gingaskin, their Virginia reservation was dissolved by the state’s General Assembly in 1813. Today, their descendants live in Maryland and Virginia.

Massachusetts (Massachusett) – One of the first groups to encounter Europeans, their numbers saw an early, sudden, and rapid decline in the 17th and 18th centuries due to infectious diseases. Descendants continue to live in the greater Boston area.

Michigan (Meskwaki)Today, most live in a settlement in Tama County, Iowa. During World War II, many served in North Africa as “code talkers” against the Germans.

Minnesota (Dakota) – Following the Dakota War of 1862, where Dakota fighters spent the end of summer raiding white homesteads and killing hundreds of settlers, 38 Dakota men were found guilty of rape and murder. Abraham Lincoln had them all killed in the largest mass execution in American history. Today, Dakota people are widely dispersed throughout the Midwest and South.

Mississippi (Chahta) – Per the 2010 Census, Chahta people live in every state of the union. Despite their origins in the Deep South, their largest numbers are in Oklahoma, followed by Texas then California.

Missouri (Neutache)Many had their own federally allotted homesteads by the early 20th century, but in 1912, the government forced them off their lands when they discovered oil there. Today, they are based in Red Rock, Oklahoma.

Montana (Apsáalooke) – The 2000 Census reported over 6,000 members living on reservations, mostly the 2,300,000-acre Crow Indian Reservation in south-central Montana. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first presidential candidate to ever visit the nation.

Nebraska (Umonhon)In the 1930s and 1940s, archaeologists excavated a large number of skeletons from Umomhon (Omaha) burial grounds and grave sites and held them in museums for study. In 1989, the Umonhon reclaimed 100 of their ancestors’ skeletons.

Nevada (Numa)As of last year, 892 members lived on reservations throughout southwestern Utah. Others reside in California and Nevada.

New Hampshire (Penakuk)Massive numbers of Penakuk were killed off by diseases introduced by Europeans. Many fled north and west, where many more were murdered by English colonists. Though they are no longer recognized as a distinct group, “many bands of Abenaki … in New Hampshire, Canada, and Vermont have Penakuk blood in their veins.

New Jersey (Lenni-Lenape)Most were forced westward by Europeans and ended up as widely dispersed as New York, Canada, Colorado, Kansas, and Idaho. Some still reside in New Jersey, but “large communities” live near Bartlesville and Anadarko, Oklahoma.

New Mexico (Nafiat)The Nafiat are one of New Mexico’s myriad “Pueblo” tribes. In 2013, a bill passed in Congress that would transfer 700 acres of national forest land to their Sandia Pueblo holdings. It is “unclear” whether the House will “take any action about the bill.”

New York (Kanien'kehaka)Today, most members live in settlements throughout northern New York and southeastern Canada. In 2012, Time magazine ran a profile of some of the Kanien’kehaka – commonly known as “Mohawk” – ironworkers who made up about 10% of those building the One World Trade Center tower.

North Carolina (Skarureh)Originally one of the most prominent nations in North Carolina, the Skarureh now have neither federal nor state recognition. Their descendants mostly live in Oklahoma, where they’ve been absorbed into other groups like the Seneca and Cayuga.

North Dakota (Hiraacá)A smallpox epidemic in 1837-1838 reduced their numbers to around 500. Today, their descendants reside mainly on the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota, where they’ve affiliated themselves with two other groups, the Mandan and the Arikara.

Ohio (Shawanwa)A group of Shawanwa known as the “Loyal Shawnee” were among the very last to leave their Ohio homeland in the late 19th century. In 2008, the federal government counted 7,584 “enrolled” members, most living in Oklahoma.

Oklahoma (Niukonska)The Niukonska – known as “Osage” – were one of the only American Indian nations to buy their own reservation. It currently encompasses 1,470,000 acres in present-day Osage County, Oklahoma.

Oregon (Nimipu)Today, tribal lands are mostly centered on a reservation in northern Idaho. Nimipu Chief Joseph stated one of the most famous surrender quotes in American history: "Hear me, my chiefs, I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever."

Pennsylvania (Alliwegis)The majority were wiped out early on during wars with other Native tribes. Anthropologists have hypothesized that the remaining few fled to Virginia and South Carolina. Some of the Seneca people living in Kansas and Oklahoma claim to be descendants.

Rhode Island (Narragansett) – They lost much of their land during Rhode Island’s “detribalization” efforts between 1880-1884. They still reside in Rhode Island but have been embroiled in constant legal battles over land ever since.

South Carolina (Ye Iswah h're) The U.S. government terminated their registered tribe status in 1959, and it wasn’t until 1993 that they regained federal recognition. As of 2006, their numbers had grown to about 2,600.

South Dakota (Lakota)The Lakota are currently recognized as a semi-autonomous nation within the U.S. This gives them leeway in deviating from some state laws – such as gambling – but ultimately they’re beholden to federal oversight. Some Lakota have been active in efforts to secede from the states altogether. In 2014, a group launched a digital currency called MazaCoin, which they dubbed “the national currency of the traditional Lakota nation.”

Tennessee (Ani'yunwi'ya)Commonly known as the “Cherokee” nation, most now reside in Oklahoma and North Carolina. Many even made their way to Oregon and California, where they were drawn by job availability during the Great Depression.

Texas (Numunuu)They have around 15,191 members today, around half of whom live in the tribal jurisdictional area around Lawton and Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Less than 1% of them speak their original language today.

Utah (Nunt'zi)Primarily dispersed throughout three reservations in Utah, one of which also bleeds into Colorado and New Mexico. In total, they number about 7,000.

Vermont (Alnobak)One of a handful of tribes whose numbers appear to have grown in recent years. Between 1990 and 2000, the Alnobak population in America jumped from 1,549 to 2,544 people, with 6,012 claiming Alnobak (“Abenaki”) heritage. In Canada, they numbered 2,164 in 2006.

Virginia (Monacan)To date, they have not been recognized as a tribe by the federal government. As of 2009, there are approximately 2,000 identifying members.

Washington (Waluulapam)Today, most live on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation near Pendleton, in northeastern Oregon.

West Virginia (Mohetan) – No known populations survive today. The best-known document of the Mohetan’s existence has been brief mentions in the journals of English explorers from the 1600s.

Wisconsin (Mamaceqtaw)Their tribe status was terminated by the U.S. government in the 1950s, but they regained federal recognition in 1973. The Mamaceqtaw (Menominee) have 8,700 members today, mostly on a 353.894-square mile reservation in Wisconsin.

Wyoming (Tsisistas)Merged with the Sutai people in the early 19th century, today they are collectively recognized as the Southern and Northern Cheyenne. Intermarriage with other groups has blurred definitive population count, but estimates put total “Cheyenne” numbers at over 20,000.

Courtesy of Creative Commons
True

After years of service as a military nurse in the naval Marine Corps, Los Angeles, California-resident Rhonda Jackson became one of the 37,000 retired veterans in the U.S. who are currently experiencing homelessness — roughly eight percent of the entire homeless population.

"I was living in a one-bedroom apartment with no heat for two years," Jackson said. "The Department of Veterans Affairs was doing everything they could to help but I was not in a good situation."

One day in 2019, Jackson felt a sudden sense of hope for a better living arrangement when she caught wind of the ongoing construction of Veteran's Village in Carson, California — a 51-unit affordable housing development with one, two and three-bedroom apartments and supportive services to residents through a partnership with U.S.VETS.

Her feelings of hope quickly blossomed into a vision for her future when she learned that Veteran's Village was taking applications for residents to move in later that year after construction was complete.

"I was entered into a lottery and I just said to myself, 'Okay, this is going to work out,'" Jackson said. "The next thing I knew, I had won the lottery — in more ways than one."

Keep Reading Show less

There have been many iconic dance routines throughout film history, but how many have the honor being called "the greatest" by Fred Astaire himself?

Fayard and Harold Nicholas, known collectively as the Nicholas Brothers, were arguably the best at what they did during their heyday. Their coordinated tap routines are legendary, not only because they were great dancers, but because of their incredible ability to jump into the air and land in the splits. Repeatedly. From impressive heights.

Their most famous routine comes from the movie "Stormy Weather." As Cab Calloway sings "Jumpin' Jive," the Nicholas Brothers make the entire set their dance floor, hopping and tapping from podium to podium amongst the musicians, dancing up and down stairs and across the top of a piano.

But what makes this scene extra impressive is that they performed it without rehearsing it first and it was filmed in one take—no fancy editing room tricks to bring it all together. This fact was confirmed in a conversation with the brothers in a Chicago Tribune article in 1997, when they were both in their 70s:

"Would you believe that was one of the easiest things we ever did?" Harold told the paper.

"Did you know that we never even rehearsed that number?" added Fayard.

"When it came time to do that part, (choreographer) Nick Castle said: 'Just do it. Don`t rehearse it, just do it.' And so we did it—in one little take. And then he said: 'That's it—we can't do it any better than that.'"

Keep Reading Show less
True

We're redefining what normal means in these uncertain times, and although this is different for all of us, love continues to transform us for the better.

Love is what united Marie-Claire and David Archbold, who met while taking a photography class. "We went into the darkroom to see what developed," they joke—and after a decade of marriage, they know firsthand the deep commitment and connection romantic love requires.

All photos courtesy of Marie-Claire and David Archbold

However, their relationship became even sweeter when they adopted James: a little boy with a huge heart.

In the United States alone, there are roughly 122,000 children awaiting adoption according to the latest report from the U.S Department of Health and Human Services. While the goal is always for a child to be parented by and stay with their biological family, that is not always a possibility. This is where adoption offers hope—not only does it create new families, it gives birth parents an avenue through which to see their child flourish when they are not able to parent. For the right families, it's a beautiful thing.

The Archbolds knew early on that adoption was an option for them. David has three daughters from a previous marriage, but knowing their family was not yet complete, the couple embarked on a two-year journey to find their match. When the adoption agency called and told them about James, they were elated. From the moment they met him, the Archbolds knew he was meant to be part of their family. David locked eyes with the brown-eyed baby and they stared at each other in quiet wonder for such a long time that the whole room fell silent. "He still looks at me like that," said David.

The connection was mutual and instantaneous—love at first sight. The Archbolds knew that James was meant to be a part of their family. However, they faced significant challenges requiring an even deeper level of commitment due to James' medical condition.

James was born with congenital hyperinsulinism, a rare condition that causes his body to overproduce insulin, and within 2 months of his birth, he had to have surgery to remove 90% of his pancreas. There was a steep learning curve for the Archbolds, but they were already in love, and knew they were committed to the ongoing care that'd be required of bringing James into their lives. After lots of research and encouragement from James' medical team, they finally brought their son home.

Today, three-year-old James is thriving, filled with infectious joy that bubbles over and touches every person who comes in contact with him. "Part of love is when people recognize that they need to be with each other," said his adoptive grandfather. And because the Archbolds opted for an open adoption, there are even more people to love and support James as he grows.

This sweet story is brought to you by Sumo Citrus®. This oversized mandarin is celebrated for its incredible taste and distinct looks. Sumo Citrus is super-sweet, enormous, easy-to-peel, seedless, and juicy without the mess. Fans of the fruit are obsessive, stocking up from January to April when Sumo Citrus is in stores. To learn more, visit sumocitrus.com and @sumocitrus.

You know that feeling you get when you walk into a classroom and see someone else's stuff on your desk?

OK, sure, there are no assigned seats, but you've been sitting at the same desk since the first day and everyone knows it.

So why does the guy who sits next to you put his phone, his book, his charger, his lunch, and his laptop in the space that's rightfully yours? It's annoying!

Keep Reading Show less
via Seresto

A disturbing joint report by USA Today and the Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting found that tens of thousands of pets have been harmed by Seresto flea and tick collars. Seresto was developed by Bayer and is now sold by Elanco.

Since Seresto flea collars were introduced in 2012, the EPA has received incident reports of at least 1,698 pet deaths linked to the product. Through June 2020, the EPA has received over 75,000 incident reports relating to the collars with over 1,000 involving human harm.

The EPA has known the collars are harming humans and their pets but failed to tell the public about the dangers.

Keep Reading Show less