Mountain gorillas were just taken off the 'critically endangered' species list.
Photo by Ivan Lieman/AFP/Getty Images.

On Thursday, the Conservation of Nature announced a major win in fight to save mountain gorillas.

The gorilla population has been designed from "critically endangered" to "endangered" as their population has nearly doubled over the past decade. The latest numbers say there are over 1,000 mountain gorillas in the wild, up from just over 600.

After teetering on the brink of extinction, mountain gorilla numbers are on the rise. That's awesome news.

Living in East Africa's Virunga Mountains and highlighted in the movie "Gorillas in the Mist" (in which Sigourney Weaver played primatologist and conservationist Dian Fossey), critically endangered mountain gorillas have been battling extinction for decades.


Image via Brent Stirton/Getty Images.

In 1981, when their numbers had plunged to 242, Fossey doubted that the species would survive into the 21st century. Thanks in large part to concerted effort from conservationists, however, their population has slowly but steadily grown. In 2010, there were 480 animals, and as of a June 2016 census there were 604. With an estimate of several hundred uncounted gorillas roaming the forests, that number could be close to 1000.

But they are not totally out of the woods yet.  

Habitat loss and poaching are the biggest threats to gorillas.

Human encroachment and deforestation due to agriculture, livestock grazing, and firewood collection threaten the mountain gorillas' habitat. In addition, people are burning trees inside the forest to create charcoal — a commodity that makes up a massive illegal trade industry in an area with limited economic options.

Poachers going after other animals, such as antelope or bush pigs, also catch gorillas in their wire snares. When a gorilla can't remove a snare, it can end up losing a limb or dying from gangren.

Such threats are a byproduct of an overarching reality: human economic strife.

Battling economic inequality is a key to saving endangered species.

In order to mitigate threats to endangered species, we need to understand why those threats exist in the first place. Most people aren't on a mission to kill animals or destroy the environment; they're on a mission to live. When economic options are limited, people do what they have to, which often means sacrificing long-term sustainability for short-term survival.  

In other words, we can save endangered species by eliminating the economic need that drives the industry that threatens conservation.

Patrick Karabaranga, a warden at Virunga National Park, plays with an orphaned mountain gorilla in the gorilla sanctuary east of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Image via AFP/Stringer/Getty Images.

Researchers at Canada's McGill University highlighted the correlation between poverty and species protection in a 2007 study of 45 countries and 45 U.S. states. They found that income inequality actually predicts the number of threatened species in an area. The greater the unequal distribution of income, the greater the loss of biodiversity.

This correlation has clearly played out in the story of mountain gorillas. Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo — the two countries bordering the Virunga Mountains — have some of the highest economic inequality in the world. However, Rwanda in particular has made significant strides to reduce inequality — and as it has made those strides, gorilla populations in the region have increased.

For this very reason, Dian Fossey's organization uses the tagline: "Helping People. Saving Gorillas."

Folks at the Dian Fossey International Gorilla Fund understand that economy and ecology are intertwined. That's why a significant part of their work is helping develop the communities in the regions near gorilla habitats.

"When people have to focus on basic survival, this puts additional pressure on the environment, such as using the forests for hunting, firewood, water, or crop land," the organization's website says. "The Fossey Fund has programs targeted at meeting basic needs in these communities, which not only helps people, but also supports effective conservation efforts."

Economic inequality is a complex issue, and certainly not the only driving factor threatening endangered species — but it's a big one. "With biodiversity loss, if we don’t link the science to the social causes, we will never solve the problem" said Dr. Andrew Gonzalez, associate professor and Canada Research Chair in biodiversity.

Mountain gorilla research has offered a real-world example of this truth. As the Fossey Fund states, "Only when people are thriving can gorillas, other wildlife, and their habitats thrive, too."

Simon & Garfunkel's song "Bridge Over Troubled Water" has been covered by more than 50 different musical artists, from Aretha Franklin to Elvis Presley to Willie Nelson. It's a timeless classic that taps into the universal struggle of feeling down and the comfort of having someone to lift us up. It's beloved for its soothing melody and cathartic lyrics, and after a year of pandemic challenges, it's perhaps more poignant now than ever.

A few years a go, American singer-songwriter Yebba Smith shared a solo a capella version of a part of "Bridge Over Troubled Water," in which she just casually sits and sings it on a bed. It's an impressive rendition on its own, highlighting Yebba's soulful, effortless voice.

But British singer Jacob Collier recently added his own layered harmony tracks to it, taking the performance to a whole other level.

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Images courtesy of John Scully, Walden University, Ingrid Scully
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Since March of 2020, over 29 million Americans have been diagnosed with COVID-19, according to the CDC. Over 540,000 have died in the United States as this unprecedented pandemic has swept the globe. And yet, by the end of 2020, it looked like science was winning: vaccines had been developed.

In celebration of the power of science we spoke to three people: an individual, a medical provider, and a vaccine scientist about how vaccines have impacted them throughout their lives. Here are their answers:

John Scully, 79, resident of Florida

Photo courtesy of John Scully

When John Scully was born, America was in the midst of an epidemic: tens of thousands of children in the United States were falling ill with paralytic poliomyelitis — otherwise known as polio, a disease that attacks the central nervous system and often leaves its victims partially or fully paralyzed.

"As kids, we were all afraid of getting polio," he says, "because if you got polio, you could end up in the dreaded iron lung and we were all terrified of those." Iron lungs were respirators that enclosed most of a person's body; people with severe cases often would end up in these respirators as they fought for their lives.

John remembers going to see matinee showings of cowboy movies on Saturdays and, before the movie, shorts would run. "Usually they showed the news," he says, "but I just remember seeing this one clip warning us about polio and it just showed all these kids in iron lungs." If kids survived the iron lung, they'd often come back to school on crutches, in leg braces, or in wheelchairs.

"We all tried to be really careful in the summer — or, as we called it back then, 'polio season,''" John says. This was because every year around Memorial Day, major outbreaks would begin to emerge and they'd spike sometime around August. People weren't really sure how the disease spread at the time, but many believed it traveled through the water. There was no cure — and every child was susceptible to getting sick with it.

"We couldn't swim in hot weather," he remembers, "and the municipal outdoor pool would close down in August."

Then, in 1954 clinical trials began for Dr. Jonas Salk's vaccine against polio and within a year, his vaccine was announced safe. "I got that vaccine at school," John says. Within two years, U.S. polio cases had dropped 85-95 percent — even before a second vaccine was developed by Dr. Albert Sabin in the 1960s. "I remember how much better things got after the vaccines came out. They changed everything," John says.

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