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What a psychological study of police officers reveals about racial profiling.

Researchers have found that even children aren't immune to the racial biases of law enforcement officials.

Who did they study?

The researchers tested 176 police officers (mostly white men) and 264 graduates (mostly white women) to see how they think, in a really nitty-gritty way, about kids of different races.

Here are two key takeaways:


1. Black children are often seen as older than they are.

That may not seem like such a big deal on the surface, but here's why it definitely is.

Kids are universally seen as "innocent" and in need of protection. The older they get, the less those protections apply, right? So when people view and treat kids of color as if they're older than they really are, they're excluding those children from those protections.

In effect, they're seeing black children as less innocent than white children,independent of any wrongdoing. That plays out about like you'd expect when it comes to law enforcement.

2. Police officers are more likely to use violent force against black children.

To a lot of people, that may sound like a no-brainer. But it's the thought behind that use of force that we need to pay attention to.

According to Dr. Phillip Atiba Goff, co-author of the study, the officers surveyed showed "a use of force about three times as high towards black children as towards white children or Latino children." Officers who exhibited dehumanizing views toward black children were more likely to have used violent force against them in the past.

And to tie that back to the first finding, those officers were also more likely to see black children as older and more blameworthy. Goff explains, "In our minds, we represent particularly those young men that we imagine are possibly dangerous to be older than they are so that we're essentially justifying the threat that we feel."

Again, we're talking about kids here, not criminals.

But this shows the power our unconscious biases can have on how we treat other people.

This study is an eye-opener, but the researchers know it's only the beginning of a deeper investigation. Goff acknowledges the limitations of working with a small sample, but he sees it as a necessary first step: "I can't tell you what the rates of disparity are for black children across the country because there are no national data on police use of force or police behavior generally."

This is a problem that we cannot wait to fix.

Goff and his colleagues are working to get that national picture. But police departments shouldn't wait any longer before taking steps to deal with it. Because let's be honest — in communities of color, "to protect and serve" sounds less like a comforting assurance and more like a cruel joke.

Check out the full report here. I'll admit, some of the stats are beyond me. But it's also full of helpful background and context.

Watch a video of Goff and a few others discussing the study:

Finally, someone explains why we all need subtitles

It seems everyone needs subtitles nowadays in order to "hear" the television. This is something that has become more common over the past decade and it's caused people to question if their hearing is going bad or if perhaps actors have gotten lazy with enunciation.

So if you've been wondering if it's just you who needs subtitles in order to watch the latest marathon-worthy show, worry no more. Vox video producer Edward Vega interviewed dialogue editor Austin Olivia Kendrick to get to the bottom of why we can't seem to make out what the actors are saying anymore. It turns out it's technology's fault, and to get to how we got here, Vega and Kendrick took us back in time.

They first explained that way back when movies were first moving from silent film to spoken dialogue, actors had to enunciate and project loudly while speaking directly into a large microphone. If they spoke and moved like actors do today, it would sound almost as if someone were giving a drive-by soliloquy while circling the block. You'd only hear every other sentence or two.

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Bengals wide receiver Chad Johnson in 2006.

A startling number of professional athletes face financial hardships after they retire. The big reason is that even though they make a lot of money, the average sports career is relatively short: 3.3 years in the NFL; 4.6 years in the NBA; and 5.6 years in MLB. During that time, athletes often dole out money to friends and family members who helped them along the way and can fall victim to living lavish, unsustainable lifestyles.

After the athlete retires they are likely to earn a lot less money, and if they don’t adjust their spending, they’re in for some serious trouble.

In a candid interview with NFL Hall of Famer and TV personality Shannon Sharpe, Chad Ochocinco (legally Chad Johnson) revealed that he saved 80 to 83% of the $48 million he made in the NFL by faking his lavish lifestyle because it made no sense to him.

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Nature

Pennsylvania home is the entrance to a cave that’s been closed for 70 years

You can only access the cave from the basement of the home and it’s open for business.

This Pennsylvania home is the entrance to a cave.

Have you ever seen something in a movie or online and thought, "That's totally fake," only to find out it's absolutely a real thing? That's sort of how this house in Pennsylvania comes across. It just seems too fantastical to be real, and yet somehow it actually exists.

The home sits between Greencastle and Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, and houses a pretty unique public secret. There's a cave in the basement. Not a man cave or a basement that makes you feel like you're in a cave, but an actual cave that you can't get to unless you go through the house.

Turns out the cave was discovered in the 1830s on the land of John Coffey, according to Uncovering PA, but the story of how it was found is unclear. People would climb down into the cave to explore occasionally until the land was leased about 100 years later and a small structure was built over the cave opening.

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Family

American mom living in Germany lists postpartum support and women are gobsmacked

“Every video you make gets me closer to actually moving to Germany.”

U.S. mom living in Germany shares postpartum support she received.

Having a baby is not an easy feat no matter which way they come out. The pregnant person is either laboring for hours and then pushing for what feels like even more hours, or they're getting cut from hip to hip to bring about their bundle of joy. (Unless you're one of those lucky—or rather not-so-lucky—folks who get to labor for hours only to still end up in surgery.)

Giving birth is hard and healing afterward can feel dang near impossible, especially given that most states in the U.S. only offer six weeks of maternity leave and it's typically unpaid. But did you know that not everyone has that experience?

A mom who had her first child in the U.S. before meeting her current husband and relocating to Germany is shedding light on postpartum care in her new country. The stark contrast is beyond shocking to women living in the U.S. and she's got a few considering crossing the ocean for a better quality of life.

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Meghan Elinor chimes in on the Starbucks tipping debate.

Tipping culture is rapidly changing in America, so understandably a lot of people aren’t sure what to do when they buy a coffee and the debit card reader asks for a tip. It used to be that people only tipped bartenders, drivers, servers and hairdressers.

Now people are being asked to tip just about any time they encounter a point-of-sale system. There is a big difference between tipping a server who lugged around hot plates of food for an hour-long meal and someone who simply handed you an ice cream cone.

"We're living in an era of inflation, but on top of that, we've got tipping everywhere—tipflation. I take it a step further and call it a tipping invasion. Because that's really what I think it is," etiquette expert Thomas Farley (aka Mister Manners) told CBS 8.

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Pop Culture

One moment in history shot Tracy Chapman to music stardom. Watch it now.

She captivated millions with nothing but her guitar and an iconic voice.

Imagine being in the crowd and hearing "Fast Car" for the first time

While a catchy hook might make a song go viral, very few songs create such a unifying impact that they achieve timeless resonance. Tracy Chapman’s “Fast Car” is one of those songs.

So much courage and raw honesty is packed into the lyrics, only to be elevated by Chapman’s signature androgynous and soulful voice. Imagine being in the crowd and seeing her as a relatively unknown talent and hearing that song for the first time. Would you instantly recognize that you were witnessing a pivotal moment in musical history?

For concert goers at Wembley Stadium in the late 80s, this was the scenario.

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