31 photos of sculptures that will make you think so many deep thoughts.

Right now in Sydney, Australia, you can walk down a beautiful beach and see dozens of jaw-dropping, mind-bending sculptures.

Billed as the "world's largest annual free-to-the-public outdoor sculpture exhibition," "Sculpture by the Sea" was started 18 years ago on a budget of just $11,000 and now draws over 500,000 visitors a year. These amazing photos were taken by Lisa Maree Williams.

Despite the idyllic setting, the sculptures are — like most art — intended to make you think deep thoughts.

While it's impossible to know which deep thoughts the artists were going for (and it's rude to ask), these are my best guesses. Your deep thoughts may vary. Unlimited deep thoughts per customer.

1. "The Bottles" by RCM Collective

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Stop throwing plastic bottles into the ocean, or one day they'll gain sentience and seek revenge on your terrified children.

2. "Transmigration" by Jeremy Sheehan

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Dumping chemicals in the ocean poisons fish, which leads, ultimately, to rickety birds.

3. "Half Gate" by Matthew Asimakis, Clarence Lee, and Caitlin Roseby

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

We can make our prisons more humane. Just maybe don't make it so easy to escape.

4. "The Navigator" by Calvert and Schiltz

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

There's nothing more soothing than riding a hyena into the sea. Nothing.

5. "Open" by Peter Lundberg

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Let's talk to each other more. Preferably through giant stone holes, if possible.

6. "Outside-in" by William Feuerman

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

If I see the sculpture, does the sculpture ... see me?

7. "Surfer's Paradise" by James Rogers

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Life's too short to always speak into the correct end of the megaphone.

8. "Space Time Continuum v4" by Clayton Thompson

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

The universe is, like, big, man.

9. "Fun" by Naidee Changmoh and "Fabrication" by Veronica Herber

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Get that baby an agent!

10. "Voyagers I & II" by Margarita Sampson

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Again, be kind to the birds, even if they're slow-moving and flightless.

11. "Cairn" by Morgan Jones

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

A moment of silence, please.

12. "The Thing Which Has Come Here" by Masayuki Sugiyama

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Obsidian sea monsters deserve love too.

13. "Meditation" by Seung Hwan Kim

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Please be more careful when stacking the chairs.

14. "Divided Planet" by Jörg Plickat

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Love is kinda neat.

15. "Cradle of Form" by Elyssa Sykes-Smith

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Don't play a big game of Jenga on top of a mountain.

16. "Harbour" by Chen Wenling

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Outdoor yoga is the slam.

17. "Forest" by Deborah Sleeman

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

If you keep putting poison into the air, we'll basically be left with tiny chickens, fish tails, and mushrooms made of metal, in terms of nature.

18. "Keep Safe/Keepsake" by Sandra Pitkin

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Seriously. If you keep putting poison into the air, we're going to have to take all the trees and put them in boxes so you idiots can't hurt them anymore. Remember this Joni Mitchell song? That was a warning. We will seriously make the tree museum happen.

19. "Dust" by Norton Flavel

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Maybe giants don't do jazz hands.

20. "The Bell" by Ruth Liou

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Why do lighthouses have to be so tall, anyway?

21. "Intuitive Sense of Connection" by Andrea Vinkovic

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

We humans may fight, hurt, even kill each other, but at the end of the day, we are all one medium-sized lattice ball.

22. "Wind Blowing" by Koichi Ishino

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

When you trust fall into the sea, everyone wins.

23. "Cycle of Life" by Ron Gomboc

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

"The Lion King" still holds up pretty well.

24. "Lonis" by Robert Hague

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Aren't we all the king of the world? Sometimes?

25. "Crate Poems" by Alessandra Rossi

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Maybe a bottle isn't the best delivery mechanism for a message after all.

26. "Conspicuous Consumption" by Benson Sculpture

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Maybe let's not waste so much paper all the time?

27. "Open Home" by Kate Carroll and "Fabrication" by Veronica Herber

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Do I really need to knock down that wall to build a home office? Do I really need the extra space?

28. "Middleground" by Philip Spelman

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Relationships are hard work.

29. "Acoustic Chamber" by Arissara Reed and Davin Nurimba

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Listen to your heart when he's calling for you.

30. "Wave 2" by Annette Thas

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Seriously. Stop throwing plastic into the ocean.

31. "The Bridge" by Linda Bowden

Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images.

Be good to one another. And enjoy the sunset!


Judy Vaughan has spent most of her life helping other women, first as the director of House of Ruth, a safe haven for homeless families in East Los Angeles, and later as the Project Coordinator for Women for Guatemala, a solidarity organization committed to raising awareness about human rights abuses.

But in 1996, she decided to take things a step further. A house became available in the mid-Wilshire area of Los Angeles and she was offered the opportunity to use it to help other women and children. So, in partnership with a group of 13 people who she knew from her years of activism, she decided to make it a transitional residence program for homeless women and their children. They called the program Alexandria House.

"I had learned from House of Ruth that families who are homeless are often isolated from the surrounding community," Judy says. "So we decided that as part of our mission, we would also be a neighborhood center and offer a number of resources and programs, including an after-school program and ESL classes."

She also decided that, unlike many other shelters in Los Angeles, she would accept mothers with their teenage boys.

"There are very few in Los Angeles [that do] due to what are considered liability issues," Judy explains. "Given the fact that there are (conservatively) 56,000 homeless people and only about 11,000 shelter beds on any one night, agencies can be selective on who they take."

Their Board of Directors had already determined that they should take families that would have difficulties finding a place. Some of these challenges include families with more than two children, immigrant families without legal documents, moms who are pregnant with other small children, families with a member who has a disability [and] families with service dogs.

"Being separated from your son or sons, especially in the early teen years, just adds to the stress that moms who are unhoused are already experiencing," Judy says.

"We were determined to offer women with teenage boys another choice."

Courtesy of Judy Vaughan

Alexandria House also doesn't kick boys out when they turn 18. For example, Judy says they currently have a mom with two daughters (21 and 2) and a son who just turned 18. The family had struggled to find a shelter that would take them all together, and once they found Alexandria House, they worried the boy would be kicked out on his 18th birthday. But, says Judy, "we were not going to ask him to leave because of his age."

Homelessness is a big issue in Los Angeles. "[It] is considered the homeless capital of the United States," Judy says. "The numbers have not changed significantly since 1984 when I was working at the House of Ruth." The COVID-19 pandemic has only compounded the problem. According to Los Angeles Homeless Services Authority (LAHSA), over 66,000 people in the greater Los Angeles area were experiencing homelessness in 2020, representing a rise of 12.7% compared with the year before.

Each woman who comes to Alexandria House has her own unique story, but some common reasons for ending up homeless include fleeing from a domestic violence or human trafficking situation, aging out of foster care and having no place to go, being priced out of an apartment, losing a job, or experiencing a family emergency with no 'cushion' to pay the rent.

"Homelessness is not a definition; it is a situation that a person finds themselves in, and in fact, it can happen to almost anyone. There are many practices and policies that make it almost impossible to break out of poverty and move out of homelessness."

And that's why Alexandria House exists: to help them move out of it. How long that takes depends on the woman, but according to Judy, families stay an average of 10 months. During that time, the women meet with support staff to identify needs and goals and put a plan of action in place.

A number of services are provided, including free childcare, programs and mentoring for school-age children, free mental health counseling, financial literacy classes and a savings program. They have also started Step Up Sisterhood LA, an entrepreneurial program to support women's dreams of starting their own businesses. "We serve as a support system for as long as a family would like," Judy says, even after they have moved on.

And so far, the program is a resounding success.

92 percent of the 200 families who stayed at Alexandria House have found financial stability and permanent housing — not becoming homeless again.

Since founding Alexandria House 25 years ago, Judy has never lost sight of her mission to join with others and create a vision of a more just society and community. That is why she is one of Tory Burch's Empowered Women this year — and the donation she receives as a nominee will go to Alexandria House and will help grow the new Start-up Sisterhood LA program.

"Alexandria House is such an important part of my life," says Judy. "It has been amazing to watch the children grow up and the moms recreate their lives for themselves and for their families. I have witnessed resiliency, courage, and heroic acts of generosity."

Researchers at Harvard University have studied the connection between spanking and kids' brain development for the first time, and their findings echo what studies have indicated for years: Spanking isn't good for children.

Comments on this article will no doubt be filled with people who a) say they were spanked and "turned out fine" or b) say that the reason kids are [fill in the blank with some societal ill] these days are because they aren't spanked. However, a growing body of research points to spanking creating more problems than it solves.

"We know that children whose families use corporal punishment are more likely to develop anxiety, depression, behavior problems, and other mental health problems, but many people don't think about spanking as a form of violence," said Katie A. McLaughlin, director of the Stress & Development Lab in the Department of Psychology, and the senior researcher on the study which was published Friday in the journal Child Development. "In this study, we wanted to examine whether there was an impact of spanking at a neurobiological level, in terms of how the brain is developing."

You can read the entire study here, but the gist is that kids' brain activity was measured using an MRI machine as they reacted to photos of actors displaying "fearful" and "neutral" faces. What researchers found was that kids who had been spanked had similar brain neural responses to fearful faces as kids who had been abused.

"There were no regions of the brain where activation to fearful relative to neutral faces differed between children who were abused and children who were spanked," the authors wrote in a statement.

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Images courtesy of John Scully, Walden University, Ingrid Scully

Since March of 2020, over 29 million Americans have been diagnosed with COVID-19, according to the CDC. Over 540,000 have died in the United States as this unprecedented pandemic has swept the globe. And yet, by the end of 2020, it looked like science was winning: vaccines had been developed.

In celebration of the power of science we spoke to three people: an individual, a medical provider, and a vaccine scientist about how vaccines have impacted them throughout their lives. Here are their answers:

John Scully, 79, resident of Florida

Photo courtesy of John Scully

When John Scully was born, America was in the midst of an epidemic: tens of thousands of children in the United States were falling ill with paralytic poliomyelitis — otherwise known as polio, a disease that attacks the central nervous system and often leaves its victims partially or fully paralyzed.

"As kids, we were all afraid of getting polio," he says, "because if you got polio, you could end up in the dreaded iron lung and we were all terrified of those." Iron lungs were respirators that enclosed most of a person's body; people with severe cases often would end up in these respirators as they fought for their lives.

John remembers going to see matinee showings of cowboy movies on Saturdays and, before the movie, shorts would run. "Usually they showed the news," he says, "but I just remember seeing this one clip warning us about polio and it just showed all these kids in iron lungs." If kids survived the iron lung, they'd often come back to school on crutches, in leg braces, or in wheelchairs.

"We all tried to be really careful in the summer — or, as we called it back then, 'polio season,''" John says. This was because every year around Memorial Day, major outbreaks would begin to emerge and they'd spike sometime around August. People weren't really sure how the disease spread at the time, but many believed it traveled through the water. There was no cure — and every child was susceptible to getting sick with it.

"We couldn't swim in hot weather," he remembers, "and the municipal outdoor pool would close down in August."

Then, in 1954 clinical trials began for Dr. Jonas Salk's vaccine against polio and within a year, his vaccine was announced safe. "I got that vaccine at school," John says. Within two years, U.S. polio cases had dropped 85-95 percent — even before a second vaccine was developed by Dr. Albert Sabin in the 1960s. "I remember how much better things got after the vaccines came out. They changed everything," John says.

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